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Linked Projects

How to become a Linked Project

For information about how to become a Linked Project, please see here.

Active linked projects

  • Australia: Australian Child Wellbeing Project
  • Brazil: Mapping adolescent health and well-being in Brazil
  • Chile: Young people's behaviour and lifestyle preferences in Chile
  • China: Chinese National Youth Health Behaviour Survey
  • China: Health Behaviour in School-aged Children in China
  • China: Health Behaviour in School-aged Children Hong Kong Survey
  • Lebanon: The effect of family, friends and school on Lebanese adolescents' health-related behaviours
  • Mozambique: Health and Lifestyle in School-aged Children from Mozambique Project
  • Sao Tome and Principe: Health and Lifestyle in School-aged Children from Sao Tome and Principe
  • Taiwan: The Taiwan Adolescent Health and Well-being Study

Inactive linked projects

  • India: At risk populations of youth in Delhi
  • Kosovo: Health Behaviour in School-aged Children in Kosovo
  • Kosovo: Municipality of Gjakova collaboration with Children of Kosovo
  • Kuwait: Health Behaviour in School-aged Children in Kuwait
  • Lebanon: Health Behavior in School aged Children: data from Lebanese regions
  • Taiwan: Adolescent Health and Lifestyle Survey in Kinmen County



Australian Child Wellbeing Project

Contact: Gerry Redmond
Team Members: Kirk Dodd, Myra Hamilton, Bridget Jenkins, Petra Lietz, Laurence Lester, Alice McEntee, Elizabeth O’Grady, Helen Popple, Peter Saunders, Jennifer Skattebol, Mollie Tobin
Address: GPO Box 2100, Adelaide, South Australia, Australia 5001
Phone: +61 8 82012699

The Australian Child Wellbeing Project (ACWP) is a new child-centred study in which children’s perspectives are being used to design, conduct and interpret findings from Australia’s first major nationally representative and internationally comparable survey of well-being among children aged 8-14 years.

Little is known about Australian children’s well-being in their middle years, or how well-being varies among different groups of children. This study employs innovative qualitative and quantitative research techniques to elicit children’s own perspectives. Particular attention is given to understanding the perspectives of children in six groups who are often seen as experiencing high levels of disadvantage and/or marginalisation: Indigenous children, culturally and linguistically diverse children, children with disabilities, children in regional and remote Australia, economically disadvantaged children and children in out-of-home care.

The ACWP survey will benchmark child well-being in Australia and provide information that contributes to the development of effective services for children’s healthy developmen in the futuret. It will also, for the first time, feed into a new international study that will establish where Australian children stand in comparison to children in other high income countries.

While ACWP, building from a ‘child perspectives’ approach, aims to measure wel-lbeing in broader areas than health, there is nonetheless good scope to develop synergies between HBSC and ACWP. This will facilitate comparison between Australia and other developed countries in important aspects of child well-being, where comparisons are currently lacking. International comparisons between HBSC and ACWP data may also lend support to drives among researchers and advocates for funding to roll out a ‘full’ HBSC in Australia in 2017-18.

For more information about the Asustralian Child Wellbeing Project click here.

HBSC ContactFiona Brooks (England)

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Mapping adolescent health and well-being in Brazil

Contact: Carmem Beatriz Neufeld
Address: Faculty of Philosophy, Sciences and Languages of Ribeirão Preto University of São Paulo
Phone: +55(16)3602-3724/ +55(16) 3602-0197

This project intends to start the mapping process on adolescents’ health and well-being issues in Brazil, a key step to the development of interventions and policies that protect and promote the quality of young people's lives. In order to contribute to the local and international knowledge base on these issues, this study aims to map health and well-being indicators and behaviors, besides the related social environments, based on the Health Behaviour in School Children-aged Protocol (HBSC). The sample comprised 1500 public school students between 13 and 15 years old (750 in each age group ) belonging to five different Brazilian cities - in the state of São Paulo, Minas Gerais, Pernambuco, Rondonia, and Rio Grande do Sul. Thus, is also possible to verify similarities and differences between these states. This project aims to start a research line on health and well-being of adolescents in Brazil - an international partnership with Margarida Gaspar de Matos of University of Lisboa - and the adaptation of the HBSC survey to the Brazilian context.

HBSC ContactMargarida Gaspar de Matos (Portugal)

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Young people's behaviour and lifestyle preferences in Chile

Contact: Laura Lara
Team Members: Veronica Edith Gomez Urrutia, Cristina del Carmen Valenzuela Contreras, Claudio Julio Muñoz Ibarra
Address: Universidad Autónoma de Chile, 5 Poniente 1670, Talca, Chile
Phone: +56 71 2735770

The project aims to use the HBSC Protocol to conduct a study on several key aspects of Chilean children and adolescent’s health, behaviour and lifestyle preferences.

Existing research suggests that the nation’s youth face more choices and opportunities than previous generations, as a by-product of the country’s process of economic and social modernization. These range from how they build relationships with family and peers, to eating habits and sexual behaviour. In this context, the country needs extensive, reliable and comparable data in order to develop effective services for children and young people’s healthy development.

Using a nationally representative sample of 11-, 13- and 15-year-old adolescents, researchers from the University of Chile seek to obtain comprehensive data on issues related to physical and psychological health. Subject areas include: body image and obesity, school-based violence and bullying, substance use, effective relationships with family and peers, life satisfaction and socio-economic status.

Data of this kind will allow for cross cultural comparisons, which will enrich our understanding of the problems and opportunities affecting Chile’s young people and develop the global research base.

HBSC ContactCarmen Moreno (Spain)

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Chinese National Youth Health Behaviour Survey

Contact: Huazhen Zhou
Team Members: Co-PI: Jing Wu. 
Senior Research Associate: Xin Guo. Project Director: Ruoxi Zhou. Statistician: Huiping Zhang, Graduate Research Assistants: Jingjing Meng, Ying Wang, Peiyao Jiao, Xiaowen Li and Haodong Geng

Address: The University of the Chinese Academy of Social Sciences (UCASS), Beijing, China, previously known as Chinese Youth University of Political Studies (CYUS)

Valid and reliable information about the social epidemiology and determinants of health behaviours, victimisation and the health outcomes of Chinese youth is vital for the development of evidence-based policy and interventions aimed at improving the lives of Chinese children.

In 2010, the China Youth University of Political Studies (CYUS) in Beijing, in collaboration with Bar Ilan University in Israel, developed and implemented the 1st Chinese National Youth Health Behaviour Survey (C-YHBS) based on the HBSC survey, and piloted the instrument on representative samples of over 22,000 11, 13 and 15 year-old school children in 16 provinces + the district of Hong Kong. In 2018 the C-YHBS was conducted in a nationally representative sample from all 34 Chinese provinces, including Hong Kong.

In 2018 the C-YHBS was conducted in a nationally representative sample from all 34 Chinese provinces, including Hong Kong.

The main topics of focus include:

  • Impact of social environments on children's lives.

  • Influence of social stratification and national policy on children's health and well-being in China.

  • Disadvantaged sub-populations such as poor children, left behind children, migrant children, etc.

  • Mental and physical health including nutrition and eating habits.

  • School experiences and measures of school disconnectedness.

  • Cyberbullying.

  • Injuries (unintentional and intentional).

  • Addictive behaviours – including internet addiction.

  • Daily leisure time activities and involvement in physical activity and sedentary behaviours.

The expected outcomes of the C-YHBS survey are:

  • Development of evidence-based policy.

  • New innovative research on adolescent health and well-being.

  • Identify high-priority issues in adolescent health in China, and provide the scientific evidence needed to develop and improve policy and programmes.

  • Provide valid, reliable and current information to adolescent health and education professionals in China.

  • Develop and evaluate new intervention approaches.

  • Learn from the success of other countries and promote the sharing of scientific knowledge.

  • Participation in International scientific sharing.

  • Inspire young researchers to focus on youth health promotion research.

HBSC ContactYossi Harel-Fisch (Israel)

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Health Behaviour in School-aged Children in China

Contact: Mei Wang
Team Members: Yanfeng ZHANG, Yang LIU, Yan LV, Fubaihui WANG, Xu WEN, Qiang FENG, Mingyi LIU, Jing TIAN, Rui CAI and Huan WANG, Ming ZHANG, Lasse Kannas (Finland) and Jorma Tynjälä (Finland)
Address: China Institute of Sport Science, 11 Tiyuguan Road, Beijing 100061 P.R. China

Children's health and health behaviours critically affect their long-term development. In recent years, with the growth of the Chinese economy and changes in people's lifestyles, more and more problems relating to health and health behaviours have emerged among Chinese school-aged children. The idea of conducting the HBSC study in China, a country with nearly 400 million schoolchildren, was initiated by the HBSC Finland research team in collaboration with the China Institute of Sport Science (CISS) in 2007.

The HBSC survey protocol (2001/02) and questionnaire was first translated from English into Chinese. Following this, a pilot study was conducted which indicated that most indicators in the HBSC international questionnaire have a high completion rate and satisfactory test-retest reliabilities for students in Beijing. The HBSC-based behaviour and lifestyle survey for school-aged children was then conducted by CISS in Beijing, strictly adhering to the HBSC research protocol. A total of 5,985 schoolchildren were sampled using multi-stage random cluster sampling methods.

Based on the survey results, CISS researchers analysed a number of different aspects of the health and health behaviours of Chinese schoolchildren. These included physical activity, alcohol usesmoking, sedentary behaviour, academic disengagement and sleep. Based on the results of the survey a report was also published.

As an official Linked Project of the HBSC study, the CISS will continue to promote the work of the HBSC study within China and beyond. In 2016, the HBSC China Linked Project survey was conducted in Haerbin, a north eastern Chinese region with medium socio-economic development status with a sample size of 2358 school-aged children. At present, the project team are planning to conduct the survey in Tibet. In addition, CISS research team has devoted to implement the large scale HBSC Linked Project survey in China together with the HBSC survey 2018.

HBSC ContactJorma Tynjälä (Finland)

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Health Behaviour in School-aged Children Hong Kong Survey

Contact: Annisa Lai LEE
Team Members: 
Address: Hong Kong, 新界沙田大埔道

This project will adopt the HBSC standardized protocol and conduct a school-based survey through self-completion questionnaires administered in the classrooms. The specific population selected for sampling is young people attending school aged 11, 13, and 15. The recommended sample size for each of the three age groups is set at approximately 1,500 students, totalling 4,500 students for each cycle.

HBSC ContactTom ter Bogt (Netherlands)

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The effect of family, friends and school on Lebanese adolescents' health-related behaviours

Contact: Marwan Akel
Team Members: Emmanuelle Godeau and Marwan Akel
Address: Lebanese International University, Beirut, Lebanon

Following a successful pilot study, the Lebanese International University in partnership with HBSC France will undertake a national, cross-sectional study of Lebanese students. The survey will run in both private and government schools in all regions of Lebanon, with a target sample size of at least 7000 pupils. The survey will sample young people aged between 11 and 20, attending Lebanese schools over four years, and will be provided in English and French.

The project is focused on understanding adolescent health within social contexts such as family, friends and school.

HBSC ContactEmmanuelle Godeau (France)

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Health and Lifestyle in School-age Children from Mozambique Project

Contact: Carlos Almeida
Team Members: Carlos Almeida, Margarida Gaspar de Matos
Address: Rua dos Continuadores, 967 – Nampula - Mozambique

Young people make up a large proportion of the population of Mozambique. The Health and Lifestyle in School-age Children from Mozambique Project will investigate the health behaviours of adolescents through an international partnership with Margarida Gaspar de Matos (HBSC Portugal) and Vitor Rosado Marques from the University of Lisbon.

This pilot project will use the HBSC research protocol, adapted to the Mozambican context, to study several key aspects of young people’s health, behaviours and lifestyle. The target population for the pilot is 8th and 10th grade children attending public school. The pilot's results will allow the Linked Project team to plan a representative study, who’s results could promote and inform national policies that advance young people’s health and well-being within the country.

HBSC ContactMargarida Gaspar de Matos (Portugal)

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Sao Tome and Principe

Health and Lifestyle in School-aged Children from Sao Tome and Principe

Contact: Miguel Yeep
Team Members: Margarida Gaspar de Matos, Miguel Yeep, Vítor Rosado Marques
Address: HELPO – Organização Não Governamental para o Desenvolvimento, Rua Catarina Eufémia, nº 167-A, Fontainhas, 2750-318, Cascais

Behaviors established during the adolescent years can continue into adulthood, affecting issues such as mental health, the development of health complaints, alcohol and tobacco use, physical activity levels and diet. Therefore, the health of children and adolescents is a asset to be protected and nurtured for the benefit of future social and economic development. This is especially true in a country like Sao Tome where around half of the total population (206,883) are under the age of 20.

This Linked Project is a pilot to investigate different aspects of the health and health behaviors of school-aged children living in Sao Tome and Principe, through an international partnership with Margarida Gaspar de Matos and Vítor Rosado Marques of University of Lisbon.

The project will use the HBSC protocol, adapted to suit the context of Sao Tome and Principe. The target population selected for sampling will be young people in 8th and 10th grade attending public school. The results of this pilot study will inform the design of scaled-up project to collect data from a representative sample of young people in the country. A representative sample will allow for analyses of the relationship between lifestyle and health, taking into account the socio-behavioural environment in which these young people live.

HBSC ContactMargarida Gaspar de Matos (Portugal)

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The Taiwan Adolescent Health and Well-being Study

Contact: Yu-Chen Lin
Team Members: Chi-Chiang Young, Yu-Wen Chang, Health Promotion Administration and Department of Mental and Oral Health of Taiwan
Address: Department of Education, National Taipei University of Education, 134, Sec.2, Ho-Ping East Road, Taipei Taiwan

The purposes of this project are to explore the association between subjective well-being, mental health and their social determinants among 6th, 8th and 10th grade students in Taiwan, and to develop strategies for promoting youth mental health and well-being.

The research team will conduct a survey using the WHO Health Behaviour in School-Aged Children (HBSC) 2013/2014 questionnaire. Approximately 5535 6th, 8th, and 10th grade students in Taiwan will be sampled using two-stage stratified cluster sample design. Researchers will use the same indicators of subjective well-being as used in UNICEF Report Card 11. Information on socio-demographic variables, social context variables and health-related behavioral variables will be used to explore their association with subjective well-being and mental health.

Recent findings include:

  • Boys have higher subjective well-being than girls and subjective well-being is higher at age 11 than it is at age 13 and 15.

  • Children with higher family affluence also have higher subjective well-being.

  • Daily breakfast consumption, eating fruit daily, and taking vigorous exercise more than once a week increase children’s subjective well-being, while being a victim of bullying reduces subjective well-being.

  • Currently smoking or ever been drunk has no impact on subjective well-being.

HBSC ContactCandace Currie (Netherlands)

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Inactive linked projects


At risk populations of youth in Delhi

Contact: Manu Raj Mathur
Team Members: Monika Arora, Richard Watt, Georgios Tsakos
Address: Public Health Foundation of India ISID Campus, Plot No.4, Institutional Vasant Kunj, New Delhi- 110070, India
Phone: + 91 11 49566000 - 61661

The aim of this study is to explore the clustering of four major behavioural risk factors (diet, physical inactivity, tobacco use and alcohol) in youth (15-19 years of age) living in the national capital territory (NCT) of Delhi and to examine the socio-demographic and psychosocial variation in the clustering of these risk factors in order to identify the youth population which is most at risk.

The specific objectives are:

  • To assess the distribution of four major behavioural risk factors (diet, physical inactivity, tobacco use and alcohol) in youth (15-19 years of age) living in the NCT of Delhi.

  • To assess the count of clustering and identify the patterns of clustering of these behavioural risk factors in youth (15-19 years of age) living in NCT of Delhi.

  • To identify the role of socio-demographic (standard of living, education level, sex) and psychosocial (life satisfaction, family support, stress and peer relationships) determinants in the clustering of behavioural risk factors.

HBSC ContactCandace Currie (Scotland)

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Health Behaviour in School-aged Children in Kosovo

Contact: Sami Uka
Team members: Skender Syla, Zarife Miftari, Fitim Uka, Naim Telaku, Petrit Beqiri, Naime Brajshori
Address: World Health Organization Pristina Office, Institute of Public Health, University Clinical Centre, St. Nëna Terezë, Rrethi i Spitalit pn, Pristina
Phone: +381 (0) 38 552 340 & 549 216

This linked project investigates the health behaviours of school-aged children living in Kosovo, with the aim of: providing a clear overview of the health and well-being of adolescents throughout the country, improving our understanding of the social competencies which affect health; informing policy-makers of ways to improve the lives of adolescents in Kosovo, and providing a comparison between the health behaviours of adolescents in Kosovo with those in other countries.

The 2010 HBSC survey instrument was used to collect data in 2012 with minor adaptations to the local context. Findings include:

  • The results show: a low rate of smoking amongst Kosovar adolescents, where only 4.7% of them are active smokers.

  • 10% of adolescents consume alcohol and most of them do so rarely.

  • The percentage of adolescents reporting the use of cannabis in the last 30 days is even lower (1.5%).

  • Out of the whole sample, 13.3% of the students reported to have had sex, while 32.8% out of them reported to have had it when they turned 14.

  • Condoms remain the primary method of contraception, while a high percentage (26.5%) have not used any kind of protective measure at all.

  • 22.3% of students declared to do physical exercise every day of the week and only 3.2% stated that they have not been physically active over the last weeks.

This research collaboration is led by the World Health Organization Office in Pristina and the UNFPA in Kosovo - in close collaboration with the Ministry of Health, Ministry of Education Science and Technology and the UNICEF office in Kosovo; with financial support from the Government of Luxemburg.

Publications using HBSC

Health Behaviour in School-aged Children (HBSC) in Kosovo A World Health Organization Collaborative Study. (2014). World Health Organization United Nations Population Fund Offices in Pristina.

HBSC ContactCandace Currie (Netherlands)

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Municipality of Gjakova collaboration with Children of Kosovo

Contact: Fiona Klasen
Team Members: Birgit Möller, Ulrike Ravens-Sieberer, Anne Catherine Haller, Helen Bichmann, Urim Deva
Address: University Medical Center Hamburg, Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, Psychotherapy, and Psychosomatics, Child Public Health, Martinistr. 52 W29, D-20246 Hamburg, Germany
Phone: +49 40 7410 57378

Children's well-being and health status in the Republic of Kosovo is still widely unknown and little explored. To close this gap, in February 2011, 720 children and adolescents between the ages of 11 and 17 were surveyed in the municipality of Gjakova. This survey focused on health behaviours and was based on an adapted version of the 2009/10 HBSC Protocol. The study was carried out by German researchers from the University Clinic in Hamburg, working in close cooperation with Children for Tomorrow Kosovo, a NGO dealing with mental health in children. The results will be presented to health promoting organizations in Kosovo. This project aims to develop a network of researchers equipped with the skills and experience necessary to carry out the next wave of the HBSC international survey within Kosovo.

HBSC ContactUlrike Ravens-Sieberer (Germany)

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Health Behaviour in School-aged Children in Kuwait

Contact: Dalia A. Badawi
Team Members: Dalia A. Badawi (PI), Jaakko Tuomilehto(Co-I), Yousuf Al-Khamees (Co-I), Nadeen Ibrahim (Co-I), Shenna Behbehani (Co-I), and Dana Al-Salem (Co-I) and Dasman Diabetes; Sisko Honkala (Co-I), University of Helsinki, Finland and Eino Honkala (Co-I).
Address: Dasman Diabetes Institute, P.O Box 1180, Dasman 15462, Kuwait.

Kuwait urgently needs comparable data in order to be able to monitor the success of the first 5-year plan for a National Health Promotion (established 2010). School-aged children in Kuwait fare badly in several areas of health and there are growing risks for many public health diseases. National policies and programs are required to prevent diabetes, dental cavities and cardiovascular diseases.

This Linked Project is a research collaboration between the Dasman Diabetes Institute and Kuwait University. In 2002/03, a pilot study - based on the 1997/98 HBSC Protocol - was conducted by Kuwait University among 11- and 13-year-old schoolchildren. A nationally representative study using the HBSC 2009/10 Protocol was carried out in 2015 for 11-, 13- and 15-year-olds. Altogether, 5,285 children (50.5% being boys) filled in the questionnaire. The figures for 11-, 13- and 15-year-olds were: 1,778, 1,607 and 1,899, respectively.

The study is financially supported by the European Commission Framework, Horizon 2020.

HBSC Contacts: Sisko Honkala (previously HBSC Finland) and Eino Honkala (Finland)

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Health Behavior in School aged Children: data from Lebanese regions

Contact: Pascale Salameh
Team Members: Isabelle Godin and Hayat Gergy-Zghondi (PhD Candidate)
Address: Lebanese University (LU)- Faculty of Public Health (FPH)- section II- Master department- Beirut- Fanar- Lebanon

The aim of our work is to describe and analyze the health related behaviors of school children aged 11 years and more in Lebanese Schools. Since no study has ever been undertaken in Lebanon to study all health behaviors concomitantly, this will be an opportunity to study the co-occurrence of these behaviors, their interactions, in addition to the effect of protective factors on these interactions. We expect to publish at least 5 articles from this work, which will serve to inform policy makers and guide intervention towards high risk groups.

The HBSC core questionnaire will be used including a small addition on waterpipe smoking, using similar structures to HBSC’s smoking questions.

Data was collected from 4000 students from a sample of schools in Mouth Lebanon. Future work will include sampling 2000 school in Beirut to carry out further analyses. The analysis will be done based on two plans: 1, A descriptive part using the HBSC model and 2, an analytical part based on pre-established hypotheses for correlates and interactions.

This project involves collaboration with researchers from the Free University of Brussels.

HBSC Contact: Isabelle Godin (previously Belgium French)

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Adolescent Health and Lifestyle Survey in Kinmen County

Contact: Yu-Chen Lin
Address: Department of Education, National Taipei University of Education, 134, Sec.2, Ho-Ping East Road, Taipei Taiwan
Phone: +886-02-27321104 Ext.5041

The 2001/02 HBSC Protocol was used to conduct a pilot study 'Adolescent Health and Lifestyle Survey' between April and May 2009. This pilot study modified the WHO HBSC questionnaire to examine a range of health behaviours and health outcomes among Taiwanese adolescents. The sample included a total of 3,560 students from grades 6 to 10 (10 being senior high-school freshmen) in all 27 public schools across the Kinmen County. This research team are planning to apply the HBSC 09/10 protocol to carry out a survey with a nationally representative sample, stratified by region and school type, and using the school as the primary sampling unit. The target age group will be 11-, 13- and 15-year-old students with 1500 respondents in each age group. The research instrument will include the core HBSC questions as well as county-specific questions.

For more info on this project, click here

Publications using HBSC:

Lin, Y.C. Assessing the Use of the Family Affluence Scale as Socioeconomic Indicators for Researching Health Inequalities in Taiwan Adolescents. Social Indicators Research, 102(3): 463-475, DOI: 10.1007/s11205-010-9683-7

HBSC ContactCandace Currie (Netherlands)

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