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HEALTH BEHAVIOUR IN SCHOOL-AGED CHILDREN

WORLD HEALTH ORGANIZATION COLLABORATIVE CROSS-NATIONAL SURVEY

 

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World No Tobacco Day 2019

Every year, on 31 May, the World Health Organization and global partners, including the HBSC study, celebrate World No Tobacco Day. In 2019, the campaign focuses on "tobacco and lung health".

Tobacco smoking and exposure to second-hand smoke increase the risk of contracting many diseases. For instance, active and passive smoking affect the health of people’s lungs in multiple ways:

  • Lung cancer: smoking is responsible for over two thirds of lung cancer deaths globally, and second-hand smoke increases the risk of developing lung cancer for non-smokers. Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer death in most countries of the WHO European Region. Approximately 430,000 people died from lung cancer in the European Region in 2018, and more than half a million new cases were diagnosed during that period. Quitting smoking reduces the risk of lung cancer: 10 years after quitting the risk falls to about half that of a smoker.

  • Chronic respiratory diseases, such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and asthma: tobacco smoking is the leading cause of COPD, a condition that results in a painful cough and agonizing breathing difficulties. It also exacerbates asthma, which restricts activity and contributes to disability. According to the latest available data, 3.6% of total deaths in the European Region were due to COPD in 2017. Early smoking cessation is the most effective way of slowing the progression of COPD and improving asthma symptoms.

Tobacco use and young people

Most adult smokers had their first cigarette, or were already addicted to nicotine, by the age of 18. Compared with adults, young people require fewer cigarettes and less time to establish a nicotine addiction.

Exposure to nicotine during adolescence can have lasting effects on brain development. Young people who smoke are also at risk of asthma and impaired lung function and growth, with a knock-on effect on their participation in physical activities, including sports.

Previous HBSC research has shown that tobacco use is related to other risk behaviours and negative health outcomes in young people, including: unhealthy eating habits; high levels of alcohol consumption; bullying behaviours; early sexual initiation; low life satisfaction; increased risk of injury; poor self-rated health; and frequent multiple health complaints.

Many family factors, such as divorce or separation, parental smoking and low-levels of family cohesion, predict tobacco use. In general, adolescents who have positive relationships with parents are less likely to smoke.

Children exposed to second-hand smoke are at higher risk of developing frequent lower-respiratory infections and have a higher risk of suffering the onset and exacerbation of asthma, pneumonia and bronchitis.

Recent tobacco research on HBSC data:

Charrier, L., Berchialla, P., Dalmasso, P., Borraccino, A., Lemma, P., & Cavallo, F. (2019). Cigarette smoking and multiple health risk behaviors: a latent class regression model to identify a profile of young adolescents. Risk analysis. DOI: 10.1111/risa.13297

[International data] De Looze, M., van Dorsselaer, S., Stevens, G. W. J. M., Boniel-Nissim, M., Vieno, A., & Van den Eijnden, R. J. J. M. (2019). The decline in adolescent substance use across Europe and North America in the early twenty-first century: A result of the digital revolution?. International journal of public health, 1-12. DOI: 10.1007/s00038-018-1182-7

Evans, D. S., O'Farrell, A., Sheridan, A., & Kavanagh, P. (2019). Comparison of the health and wellbeing of smoking and non-smoking school-aged children in Ireland. Child: care, health and development. DOI: 10.1111/cch.12681

Holstein, B. E., Andersen, A., Damsgaard, M. T., Due, P., Bast, L. S., & Rasmussen, M. (2019). Trends in socioeconomic differences in daily smoking among 15-year-old Danes 1991–2014. Scandinavian Journal of Public Health. DOI: 10.1177/1403494819848284

[International data] Hallingberg, B., Maynard, O., Bauld, L., Brown, R., Gray, L., Lowthian, E., ... & Moore, G. (2019). Have e-cigarettes renormalised or displaced youth smoking? Results of a segmented regression analysis of repeated cross sectional survey data in England, Scotland and Wales. Tobacco Control. DOI: 10.1136/tobaccocontrol-2018-054584

Gorini, G., Gallus, S., Carreras, G., Cortini, B., Vannacci, V., Charrier, L., ... & De Mei, B. (2018). A long way to go: 20-year trends from multiple surveillance systems show a still huge use of tobacco in minors in Italy. European journal of public health. DOI: 10.1093/eurpub/cky132

Kim, H. H. S., & Chun, J. (2018). Analyzing multilevel factors underlying adolescent smoking behaviors: the roles of friendship network, family relations, and school environment. Journal of School Health, 88(6), 434-443. DOI: 10.1111/josh.12630

Lew, D., Xian, H., Qian, Z., & Vaughn, M. G. (2018). Examining the relationships between life satisfaction and alcohol, tobacco and marijuana use among school-aged children. Journal of Public Health. DOI: 10.1093/pubmed/fdy074

de Lacy, E., Fletcher, A., Hewitt, G., Murphy, S., & Moore, G. (2017). Cross-sectional study examining the prevalence, correlates and sequencing of electronic cigarette and tobacco use among 11–16-year olds in schools in Wales. BMJ Open, 7(2), e012784. DOI: 10.1136/bmjopen-2016-012784

Mazur, J., Kowalewska, A., & Dzielska, A. Comparing intact and non-intact families in terms of trends in adolescent weekly tobacco smoking and alcohol drinking (Poland: 2002-2014). (2017). Journal of Health Inequalities, 3(1), 41-46. DOI: 10.5114/jhi.2017.69164

[International data] Pförtner, T. K., Hublet, A., Schnohr, C. W., Rathmann, K., Moor, I., de Looze, M., ... & Richter, M. (2016). Socioeconomic inequalities in the impact of tobacco control policies on adolescent smoking. A multilevel study in 29 European countries. Addictive behaviors, 53, 58-66. DOI: 10.1016/j.addbeh.2015.09.016

Braverman, M. T., Stawski, R. S., Samdal, O., & Aarø, L. E. (2016). Daily Smoking and Subjective Health Complaints in Adolescence. Nicotine & Tobacco Research, ntw133. DOI: 10.1093/ntr/ntw133

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item 5532
[31-05-2019 to 23-04-2020]

 


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